An excellent article in the Guardian by Dana Lone Hill of the Oglala Lakota Sioux people outlining the campaign by her nation for the return of their ancestral lands in Pahá Sápa or the Black Hills country of South Dakota:
“The Fort Laramie Treaty granted the Black Hills to the Sioux Nation, and prohibited white settlement of the land. At first, in his exploratory expedition in July 1874, General Custer deemed the Black Hills worthless – maybe good for agriculture but “infested with Indians”. That assessment changed, just weeks later, when gold was discovered in the hills, in August of 1874.
The Sioux peoples’ treaty rights were constantly violated by gold prospectors, who kept crossing the reservation border. When they were attacked by our people defending their land, the United States government seized the Black Hills, in 1877 – illegally. This occurred just one year after Custer and the 7th Cavalry were defeated at the Battle of Greasy Grass, in which our ancestors were defending their land and their way of life. And so the Black Hills were stolen from us.
The battle for the Black Hills has been going on ever since, for as long as I can remember. Nearly a century after the expropriation, in 1975, the US court of claims described the US government’s conduct thus:
“A more ripe and rank case of dishonourable dealings will never, in all probability, be found in our history.”
But it wasn’t until June 1980, in the case United States v Sioux Nation of Indians, that the United States supreme court upheld an award of $15.5m for the market value of the land in 1877, along with 103 years worth of interest at 5%, for an additional $105m in damages. Today, that sum is over $1bn – and remains untouched – as Paul Harris called it in the Observer, in 2007, “a heroic, some might say unfathomable, act of defiance”. In the same article, my mother explained:
“They should not touch it [the financial compensation]. Then white America will never own the Black Hills.”
But we are tired of waiting for the government to come through, realize they are in the wrong and restore our land rights. We are tired of the promises: our President Barack Obama gave us hope in 2009 by telling the Native American population that “You deserve to have a voice”, and “You will not be forgotten as long as I’m in this White House.” We hadn’t received a presidential nod like that since President Clinton – and we had hope.
Just this year, United Nations special rapporteur James Anaya conducted a 12-day tour of Native American land, to determine how the United States is faring on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, a survey endorsed by the Obama administration in 2010. Anaya met with tribes in seven states on reservations and in urban areas, as well as with members of the Obama administration and the Senate committee on Indian affairs. The UN special rapporteur tentatively recommended the return of lands to some tribes, including the Black Hills to the Sioux. His full official report with recommendations is due in September 2012.
One of the most sacred areas of the Black Hills, Pe’ Sla, is under threat of turning into a saltwater taffy stand, or condos, or a golf course, or some other tourist trap – like the hundreds already spread through our sacred Black Hills. The state of South Dakota even has plans to put a road through the middle of this, one of our most sacred areas.
For this reason, our flagship media group lastrealindians.com and the Rosebud Sioux Tribe have combined in an attempt to buy back Pe’ Sla – land due to be auctioned off for development on 25 August 2012. You may see the irony that the Sioux Nation, having put aside the $1bn offered in compensation for the original theft, is now trying to buy back the land we believe always belonged to us. All the same, that is what we’re doing: raising money to buy back our birthright.
Whatever I do in this life and whoever I become, I know in my heart that I belong to that land, as my ancestors did and my children do. This is why we must do this. The Black Hills are, for us, the heart of all that is.”
And to see some of the attitudes the Native American peoples of North America must live with read the Comments below the original Guardian article. Its eye-opening to see so much casual discrimination on display… that doesn’t involve attacking the Irish-speaking population of Ireland.
- Pe’ Sla: Help Save Lakota Sioux Sacred Land! (intercontinentalcry.org)
- Help Save the Lakota Heart Land (forestdoor.wordpress.com)
- Pe’ Sla, The Heart Of All That Is: Help Save the Lakota Heart Land (ireport.cnn.com)
- Sacred Sioux Nation Lands to be Auctioned (ireport.cnn.com)