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Destroyer Of Cities, Homer, JRR Tolkien And George RR Martin

When I was fifteen or sixteen I read a relatively well-known book called In Search of the Trojan War by the British historian Michael Wood and was struck by his use of the ancient Greek term ptoli-pórthios or “sacker, destroyer of cities”. According to Homer, the semi-legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, it was one of the more desirable epithets in vogue among the kings and lords of the Late Bronze Age Aegean (some three thousand years ago). The classical tales reserved the phrase for warriors like Achilles, Agamemnon, Nestor and Odysseus, reflecting their exalted status in the pantheon of ancient heroes and gods. However it must have had a particular resonance for the peoples of the Mediterranean. Many of those listening to the oral recitations of the primitive Iliad would have lived in largely self-contained city-states, similar to those in the stories, where the risk of hostile action by near or distant neighbours was a constant worry. Of course, the cities of the late 2nd and early 1st millennium BCE would have been little more than fortified towns and villages by our modern standards, small conurbations a few hundred or thousand strong, surrounded by farmlands. In popular interpretations of the Homeric period the “city” aspect is somewhat overdone (think of the 2004 film, Troy).

Nevertheless the sobriquet has remained with me. Perhaps I recognised something almost Irish in its “Heroic Age” thinking. One could certainly imagine warriors like Conchúr mac Neasa, Cú Chulainn or Cormac mac Airt making a similar claim. Scriostóir na cathracha? However there is more to it than that. There is something about the phrase, “destroyer of cities”, that I find incredibly evocative. It simply won’t let go of my imagination. In my own writings I have toyed with a Fantasy literature setting where a world of city-states, dozens of self-governing towns, is terrorised by war-leaders each claiming to be a ptoli-pórthios.

JRR Tolkien’s First Age tales in Beleriand would have been far more interesting if they had turned on the machinations of rival Elvish kingdoms rather than the deus ex machina of Morgoth and his minions. Using the fictional history of the Kinslaying at Alqualondë, the landing of the Noldor under Fëanor and the animosity between the branches of the Eldar, a Shakespearean-like drama could have been crafted by the Oxford scholar. Gondolin falling not to an army of nameless orcs but to a host from Menegroth acting in concert with treacherous Maeglin. Add to that the intervention of the armies of Angband, and even Sauron, and there was a more epic tale waiting to be crafted than perhaps the one which eventually emerged. Maybe such a story lay beyond Tolkien’s imagination or intent?

I suppose in some ways the American author George RR Martin has done all this in his A Game of Thrones universe, writing the sort of earthy, pessimistic fiction that his British counterpart could not. Though admittedly he wears his Tolkien inspirations quite heavy. Westeros is an obvious Middle-earth analogy, the Wall is a linear version of Ithilien or the March of Maedhros, while Beyond the Wall is simply Angband or Mordor. That said, it works and works well. But I would still like a ptoli-pórthios in there. Maybe I’ll write it myself?

9 comments on “Destroyer Of Cities, Homer, JRR Tolkien And George RR Martin

  1. Joe Keenan

    Interesting that you wrote this. As you are no doubt aware Tolkien had the dream to create a mythology for England (paraphrase). I believe he eventually came to the realization that this is beyond the ability of any one man. In support of that position I point to Christopher Tolkien who has published the Silmarilion, Children of Hurin and the soon to be released Beren and Luthien. All tremendos additions to the mythos. I have hope the estate would hold a competition to add to the mythos. Where do dragons come from anyway, I have my own idea….


  2. Game of Thrones? Never saw the point. Lucrative, mind.


  3. Fañch Bihan-Gallic

    Oh, scrìobh sin! Agus scrìobh é sa Ghaeilge! ;D


  4. I think there’s something very Shakespearean about the Tolkien elven backstories myself. There’s an air of impending doom, of tragedy in waiting, of a snake in the garden. But still, but still, the good guys almost made it.
    Only problem I could see with your idea ASF is that it might take 7-8 volumes to write it! Bad v Good is much easier to sell. If you don’t have these you have to start explaining shades of grey and that takes many pages…


    • Oh no, I reckon I could get it done in 600 pages or so 😉

      Absolutely on the Eleven backstories, especially in some of the early attempts, the Book of Tales and so on. The Elves were somewhat more “human-like” and fallible in the Silmarillion era than they became in the LotR. But a lot more infighting would have been welcome. I can imagine Beleriand as a “Bronze Age” land of warring Elvish – or rather Noldorian – city-states or kingdoms with Morgoth as the outsider (the Persian aggressor to the Elvish Greeks).

      Yeah, bad versus good is the easy sell but grey is more interesting. And real to life.


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