Tuatha Dé Danann
The supernatural Otherworld race of Irish, Scottish and Manx mythology and folklore.
All spelling, names and terms in Modern Irish unless stated otherwise.
The modern long form of the name is:
Tuatha Dé Danann “Peoples of the Goddess *Dana”
The modern short form of the name is:
Tuatha Dé “Peoples of the Goddess”
The older (and probably original) forms of the name are:
Tuath Dé “People of the Gods (God / Goddess)”
Tuatha Dé “Peoples of the Gods (God / Goddess)”
The name is derived from the following words:
Tuath (pl. Tuatha), “people, tribe (or the territory, kingdom thereof)”
Dia (gs. Dé, pl. Déithe) “god or goddess” (Note: in Old Irish the word dé is dependant on context for its exact meaning and translates variously as “god, goddess, gods”; from dé is derived the Modern Irish word dia “god” and its genitive version dé)
*Dana (gs. Danann), the name of a female figure from early Irish and Scottish literature, generally assumed in modern accounts to be a goddess, though her name only survives in the genitive form Danann. The name *Dana is the proposed version of the original which was never actually recorded.
The Scottish (Gaelic) spelling of the name is:Tuatha Dè Danann
The Tuatha Dé Danann are a race of supernaturally-gifted people found in the indigenous literature and folklore of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man who were adapted from the Celtic religious beliefs of the pre-Christian Gaelic peoples. Over the course of a thousand years and more they were central to much of the literary output of the Gaelic nations, including their speculative histories, explanatory geographies, genealogies, sagas and poetry. Their lasting influence was to remain, albeit greatly debased and diluted, in Irish and Scottish folklore, and is still to be found in some contemporary works of fiction, drama and art.
When Ireland and Scotland made the conversion to Christianity in the 5th to 7th centuries CE the countries’ new monastic schools gradually developed an innovative literary corpus of histories, genealogies and toponyms based in part upon the older oral traditions of the Gaelic peoples and in part upon an “approved” body of Biblical, ecclesiastical and Classical texts. This lent the emerging Christian societies a broad sense of continuity with their pre-Christian past as well as co-opting older beliefs and customs to the new proselytizing faith. However, those previously worshipped as gods and goddesses amongst the Irish, Scots and Manx presented something of a theological challenge to the monastic scribes as the process of assimilating indigenous oral beliefs to the new literary faith developed. Seemingly the preferred method of managing this quandary was to rationalize or explain away the existence of the “pagan” deities once recognised by their ancestors with a number of different theories, depending on the writer or the school of thought he adhered to.
As a result some literary accounts presented the Tuatha Dé Danann (and related Aos Sí) as fallen or rebellious angels, beings from Christian mythology who sided with the archangel Lucifer (in Irish, Lúcifir) in his Old Testament rebellion against “God” or who chose to remain “neutral” in that struggle. Because of their actions they were condemned to exile in the world of men and their supernatural powers and knowledge were the result of their angelic origins. Very similar beliefs are found in the English, German and Scandinavian traditions rationalising (in a Christian context) the origins of the “Elves” and other related supernatural beings in Germanic mythology, pointing to a shared theory or body of theories amongst early Christian writers and historians in Europe.
In contrast others preferred the apparently quite influential interpretation suggesting that the Tuatha Dé had an origin in the Judeo-Christian Garden of Eden (Irish Gairdín Éidin) before the actions of the first man and woman, Adam and Eve (Irish, Ádhamh and Éabha), so freeing their kind from the stain of “original sin” imposed on the rest of humanity in line with conventional Christian theology. This suggestion also had some resonances elsewhere in Europe where literary evidence reflects similar origins given for the assimilated pre-Christian pantheon and supernatural races of the Germanic peoples.
Those monastic scribes with a more matter-of-fact view preferred to see the Tuatha Dé as a race of human beings that dwelt in Ireland during the distant past but who were possessed of occult abilities or later credited with them in legendary tales handed down from generation to generation. As a consequence of this concept a few writers actually acknowledged that the Tuatha Dé Danann were worshipped as gods by their ancestors, though erroneously so as they were at pains to point out.
Finally, some early Christian authors, rather than questioning or explaining away the origins of the Tuatha Dé, simply accepted them as being present throughout the Irish literary tradition without further need for comment or justification. For them the Tuatha Dé Danann, in all their manifestations, were simply part of Ireland’s past – and present.
It seems unlikely that the pre-Christian pantheon of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man was known to the inhabitants of those countries by the collective title of the Tuatha Dé Danann. In fact the earliest form of the name appears without the “Danann” as the Tuath Dé (also occurring in the plural, Tuatha Dé).The challenge for modern historians and mythographers in translating this is the Irish word dé which can have more than one meaning, depending on the context (or what the people using it originally intended it to mean or whether the meaning of the name changed over time, a crucial factor which adds to the difficulties of interpretation). The commonest proposed translations are “People of the Gods”, “People of the God” and “People of the Goddess”. However the original monastic scribes do provide us with one clue to the intended meaning in a Latin gloss that was written besides the name in an early text: the phrase “plebes deorum” translates into English as “people of the gods”. However whether this was the universal view, or the understanding of one or more clerical writers, is a matter of opinion.
What we can say is that at a very early stage the title Tuath Dé also became a term for the Israelites in Irish ecclesiastical literature with the meaning “People of God”. This must have led to an element of confusion between the two groups for some monastic scholars and their audiences at least. In the late 10th or 11th centuries CE a name was added to the title Tuath Dé to distinguish which group was being referred to, a clarification made by one or more writers associated with the bringing together of the texts that made up the Leabhar Gabhála Éireann (an unparalleled syncretic history of Ireland from the creation of the world to the Medieval period, combining often disparate elements from indigenous, Judeo-Christian and Classical sources). This name was *Dana (gs. Danann) and the Tuath(a) Dé gradually became more frequently known as the Tuath(a) Dé Danann.
However there is a problem with the name *Dana. It is completely unknown in that form anywhere in early Irish literature; it only appears in the genitive version of Danann. Strangely, and quite ungrammatically, Danann is even used as a proper noun in places. And where the word Danann does occur it is invariably in association with stories incorporated or derived from the relatively late and heavily edited Leabhar Gabhála Éireann referred to above. To add to the mystery in the earliest texts Danann is actually spelled as Donann, with an “o“. While this could be ascribed to scriptural errors and variant or regional spelling, it adds to the impression that the name *Dana (gs. Danann) was a late invention, designed to differentiate the Tuatha Dé from the Israelites and nothing more than that. Several attempts have been to explain this linguistic anomaly by modern scholars. An otherwise ingenious suggestion deriving *Dana (gs. Danann) from another independent early female deity in Irish literature, *Ana (gs. Anann), is grammatically unsatisfactory and does not answer the question of how Donann became Danann. Similarly a derivation from dán “skill, art” as in the very early title of Trí Dé Dána “Three Gods of Art”, works poorly on linguistic grounds.
Yet if the name *Dana / *Dona (Old Ir. *Danu / *Donu) actually did exist it would have several close comparisons in the Celtic and Indo-European world, not least Dôn, the “goddess” figure of Welsh literature and mother of the Children of Dôn (often equated with the Tuatha Dé Danann in modern studies, though some have argued for a Welsh borrowing from Irish tradition in the early Medieval period). This has led to suggestions of a derivation from Old Irish *don “place, ground, earth” and the related words domhain “depth, deep, abyss” and domhan “earth, world” which would match, ironically, the Latin notations written by the monastic scribes describing the Tuatha Dé as “earth gods”. One suggested original form of the name Tuatha Dé Danann derived from these modern speculations is Tuath Dé nDonann “People of the Gods of the Earth” (“nDonann”, through nDanann, could also give Anann, the “n” at the start of Donann eclipsing the “d” sound in the name as recorded, reversing the suggested derivation of the name *Ana referred to earlier).
All of the above to one side, there is little doubt that the indigenous Gaelic pantheon was originally known as the Tuath Dé “People of the Gods”, and under that title they were worshipped by the Irish, Scots and Manx. With the adoption of Christianity the early monastic scribes chose to call the Israelites the Tuath Dé “People of God”, a literal translation into Irish of the Hebrew people’s Biblical title. It seems highly unlikely that this was done with no awareness of the confusion it would create with the older, non-Christian religious beliefs of the Gaelic peoples. Indeed, given the proselytizing nature of the early church it was probably a deliberate act of appropriation and it may be that in the earliest days of Christianity the view was general that there would be no record made, however well filtered or adapted, of the more explicitly “pagan” beliefs of their ancestors. Somewhere this changed, or perhaps it was never a fixed opinion, and as stated above the early historian-writers of the Christian monasteries soon started to meld together the native and foreign traditions they inherited into new forms of literature, both secular and ecclesiastical, genealogical and chronological.
The continued double-meaning of the name Tuath Dé (and the plural form Tuatha Dé) must then have caused some concern for later Christian redactors. This resulted in the group of monastic writers involved in the creation of the histories that would later constitute the Leabhar Gabhála Éireann clarifying the situation by adding a qualifying name to the title of the Otherworld people: no longer would they simply be the Tuath Dé they would now be called the Tuath Dé Danann (or Tuatha Dé Danann).
Where Danann came from is, as we have seen, debatable but it is not unreasonable to suppose that there was an actual personage associated with the Tuath Dé and known as *Dana who was finally recorded in the literary tradition, albeit under the genitive form of her name (and with variant spelling). It may well be that she was sort of “mother figure” in the Otherworld community, originally a goddess of some note or an alternative name for a better known one already recorded by the scribes under an euhemerized form, and judged suitable to define which group was being referred to in any given text (perhaps the Mórríon in her more pacific guise, an arguable mother-goddess if ever one existed and who was probably identical with the female figure Bóinn?). The present and popular modern Irish version of the name, Tuatha Dé Danann, stems from this late Medieval innovation or clarification. By the 12th century the Otherworld community had made the literary journey from being the “People of the Gods” to the “Peoples of the Goddess Dana”.
The Otherworld And Otherworld People In Irish Mythology
Aos Sí “People of the Otherworld (Otherworld Residences, Territories)”.
The name is derived from the following words:
Aos “People (Folk, Class)”
Sí “(the) Otherworld”
Sí “Otherworld Residence, Territory”
The term Aos Sí refers to a race of supernaturally-gifted people in the literature and folklore of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, who are almost certainly identical with the Tuatha Dé Danann. The name seems to be quite ancient, pre-dating the Christian period, but its meaning and use is tied up with the complexities of the word Sí (Old Irish Sídh, Modern Scottish Sìth) in the Irish language since this has two broad but linked meanings.
The first – and probably oldest – is Sí “(the) Otherworld”: that is the subterranean world of the Tuatha Dé Danann and Aos Sí in the indigenous traditions of the Irish, Scots and Manx. This was originally the abode of the gods and their demonic opponents in the pre-Christian religion of the Gaels (hence the frequent Latin explanations in the Medieval manuscripts featuring stories about the Tuatha Dé and Aos Sí describing them as “gods of the earth”). However it was also a type of afterlife for mortals, normally heroic ancestral figures or those favoured by the gods.
The Otherworld itself was reached through ancient burial mounds and caves, lakes or springs, or more supernaturally via sudden mists or visions (c.f the archaeological evidence throughout the Celtic world of presumed votive offerings deposited in the ground and in shaft-pits, bogs and lakes – gifts to the gods below?). Later it became associated with faraway islands reached by boat or ship. While this has been attributed to Classical (Greek and Roman) influences during the Christian literary era it was probably also a continuation of native traditions and these islands may have been simply a manifestation of the undersea aspects of the Otherworld. In later folklore mysterious coastal or overseas islands became more prominent especially in Ireland.
The second - and later - definition of Sí is “Otherworld Residence, Territory” (pl. Síthe “Otherworld Residences, Territories”). These Síthe were regarded as the Otherworld homes or dwellings of the Tuatha Dé Danann and Aos Sí, while also providing access to their otherworldly kingdoms. They were both part of yet separate from the Otherworld as a whole, and in the literature and folklore often represented the homes or kingdoms of particular members of the Otherworld community; and presumably at one stage the most prominent native gods or goddesses.
Most Síthe were equated with the ancient burial mounds and cairns that dotted the landscapes of Ireland, Scotland and Mann (though the term was sometimes applied to other areas associated with the supernatural like notable hilltops, caves, wells, lakes and certain wilderness locations). The majority of these ancient monuments dated from the Neolithic and Late Bronze Age, thousands of years before Christianity was imported to north-western Europe, and the memory of those who built them or what they contained had been blurred or lost many generations previously. Modern archaeologists believe the funeral function of the mounds to have been communal in nature, with interments over long periods of time, and there is a strong assumption that they were linked to “ancestry worship”. This probably contributed towards the evolving concept of such monuments in the ancient past as the dwelling places of ancestral kings or heroes - and the gods (it is worth noting that the Celtic inhabitants of western Europe were linguistically and culturally descended from the Neolithic peoples, and presumably inherited much of their oral traditions).
It’s likely that the concept of the Tuatha Dé and Aos Sí living in different residences or territories within the Otherworld reflected the territorial divisions of Ireland and Scotland into separate kingdoms and lordships in the late pre-historic and Medieval periods.The idea may have been given impetus by the widely spaced locations of the burial mounds regarded as Síthe, suggesting an obvious equivalence with the widely-spaced homes and fortresses of the kings and nobility in the mortal world (especially if the great mounds were originally thought of by those peoples or tribes living around them as the abodes of their deceased ancestors). In a sense the Otherworld became an idealized version of the human world, distinguished by the supernatural aspects of its inhabitants, creatures and lands.
These many layers of interpretation mean that the translation of the word Sí in the literature or folklore is often dependent on context, with many semantic ambiguities, though it should be noted that Aos Sí is simply the “People of the Otherworld Residences, Territories” (which can be glossed in English as the “Otherworld People, Folk”).
While in the early literature the Tuatha Dé and the Aos Sí are occasionally treated as different peoples, in general it is understood that they are the same race. The name Tuatha Dé Danann is very much the formal and “literary” term while the name Aos Sí is a more familiar one (in a sense the Tuatha Dé became the Aos Sí). The argument put forward by a minority of modern scholars, that the Tuatha Dé and Aos Sí originally represented different levels or classes of gods in the pre-Christian pantheon echoes of which then survive into the literary tradition, remains largely unproven. However, it is worth noting that several references are made in the Irish texts to the rather tantalizing term Déithe agus Andéithe (Old. Ir. dé ocus andé) “Gods and Un-Gods” amongst the Tuatha Dé and Aos Sí. It is explained by the scribes in their Latin comments that the Déithe were their gods and the Andéithe their “husbandmen” (that is farmers, commoners and so on), giving the theory some credence, as well as hinting at far greater complexities of thought behind the character of the Tuatha Dé than we see in the literary milieu.
The relationship between the Tuatha Dé and the Aos Sí parallels to some extent the much more uncertain relationship between the gods (particularly the Vaner) and the Alver (“Elves”) in the traditions of the Germanic peoples, which includes the Scandinavians and English (all spelling in Modern Norwegian or Norsk Bokmål). Modern scholarly opinion generally regards the Vaner as a lower or lesser group of gods in the Icelandic/Scano-Germanic pantheon while the Æser represented the higher or superior group. The Vaner seem to have been more numerous than their occasional rivals in the Æser and may have had a closer association with agriculture, fertility and the natural world. This ties them to the Alver, the much debated elfin race of the Germanic peoples, and most writers believe that the Vaner and the Alver were identical, or at least originally so. Relatively late references to “Light Elves”, “Dark Elves” and “Black Elves” in the Eddas (the main mythological cycle of early Icelandic literature) are probably a contemporary misunderstanding. “Light Elves” are simply the Alver (Vaner) while “Dark” and “Black Elves” are the Dverger or “Dwarves” (who in turn may be related to the Jotne or “Giants”, the traditional enemies of the gods).
The Tuatha Dé Danann / Aos Sí and the Æser / Vaner / Alver can be understood then as loose equivalents of each other, a comparison which can be broken down further with the Aos Sí on one side and the Vaner / Alver on the other. Given the close Indo-European origins and geographical proximity of the Celtic and Germanic peoples it is hardly surprising that their mythological traditions are so similar. However, one should not carry such comparative extrapolations too far, important though they are for illuminating the mythological traditions of early Europe’s two largest cultural blocks. Peculiarities of language, culture, religion, history, geography and history also make for major differences.
The Otherworld As The Afterlife
The Otherworld or Sí, while the domain of the gods and other supernatural beings, was also the world of the spirits of the dead: that is, in crude terms, the Celtic afterlife. It was where one’s ancestors dwelt after death and distorted memories of the role of the great burial mounds probably contributed towards this belief. However, in the recorded literature those mortals who visited or stayed in the Otherworld were primarily famous figures: legendary heroes and kings. Could it be that the Otherworld was not available to the ordinary people as a whole? Did they face a slightly less luxurious afterlife or no afterlife at all? Since early Irish and Scottish texts are mainly concerned with the lives of the noble classes (lay and ecclesiastical) it is difficult to know how much they reflect wider assumptions held in the pre-Christian societies of Ireland and Scotland.
It could be that one of the attractions of the new Christian religion for Irish, Scots and Manx converts was to be found in its promise of eternal life for all believers, regardless of one’s economic circumstances or status in wider society. The theory that Christianity began in the Gaelic nations as the faith of the lower classes (beginning with slaves from Romano-Britain and Europe) may be apropos here. Though it should be remembered that the qualifications for noble status amongst the Gaels were not simply about one’s bloodline or family but were instead more concerned with the possession of property and the system of clientism. As an Irish legal maxim has it, “A man is greater than his birth”, and commoners and nobles could rise and fall in status, and almost certainly did so.
It may be then that the ordinary people of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man outside the aristocratic families or learned classes could also expect a life or continued existence in the world beyond, though perhaps one less exalted than that of their noble peers. However this remains largely educated guesswork. Unfortunately it seems that the exact nature of the Celtic afterlife will remain one of several crucial areas of religious thought from pre-Christian Ireland and Scotland that (along with the beginning and end of the world) are lost or beyond conclusive reconstruction.
It is worth noting here that the Irish word for “Heaven”, Neamh, though now understood to refer to the Christian afterlife may originally have had a non-Christian meaning or association. However, this is a matter of (considerable) debate and nowhere in the early secular or religious literature of the Gaelic nations is the Otherworld referred to as Neamh.
Gods And Under-Demons
Aside from the gods represented by Tuatha Dé Danann and Aos Sí, and some favoured or chosen mortals, the Otherworld was also home to the traditional rivals of the Tuatha Dé, the Fomhóraigh “Under-Demons” (sg. Fomhórach). The name probably originates from fo (faoi) “under” (in the sense of “underneath, underground, subterranean”) and *mórach “demon, phantom” (pl. *móraigh), since the Fomhóraigh were viewed in the earliest layer of myths as living beneath the surface of the earth, and beneath the sea (this latter association partly led to a later Medieval reinterpretation of the name as “Undersea Ones” from what was probably a false etymology of fo- “under-“ and muir “sea, ocean”).
Despite the translation of the term Fomhóraigh as “Under-Demons”, these particular demons could on occasion appear as simply another rival group of gods. Both the Fomhóraigh and the Tuatha Dé Danann interact, intermarry and share some names, titles and personages in common. Two extremely rare names for both the races that occurs in the very earliest texts illustrate this: Na Daoine Teathrach “The People of Teathra” and Fir Teathrach “Men (People) of Teathra”. Teathra (gs. Teathrach) was a Fomhórach who for a time ruled the Tuatha Dé in the more literary accounts of early Irish history, and the use of his name aptly shows the complexity of Tuatha Dé and Fomhóraigh relationships.
Because of the confusion that exists over the exact distinction between the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomhóraigh it has been argued that they simply represent two broad divisions of the same divine community, the latter viewed as slightly more hostile or “demonical” than the other. Related to this has been the suggestion that the differences between both reflect class divisions in the community of the Gods, between an aristocratic and noble class on one hand and a cruder, commoner class on the other (reflecting the class system of Irish society). Some have attempted to link this to the supposed divisions between the Tuatha Dé and the Aos Si referred to above. But to some modern scholars the division between Gods and Under-Demons (Under-Gods?) seems to go further than mere class, and is a more fundamental, if fluid, one. They see both groups as distinct races of the Otherworld, though ones that freely interact when not engaged in rivalry. What confusion there is, they argue, stems from the misunderstandings or redactions of the early Christian scribes, who overemphasized the rivalry and monstrous nature of the Fomhóraigh and confused beings from both groups.
As indicated above with the examination of the Aos Sí, a comparison with the Germanic traditions of continental Europe and England can be very useful (some might say essential) for exploring the literary inheritance of the Celtic peoples. Taking the division of the Scandinavian pantheon into two closely related groups, the Æser and the Vaner (who were probably identical with the Alver or “Elves”), one finds some similarities with the Tuatha Dé and the Fomhóraigh. However a far closer comparison for the Fomhóraigh is to be found the opponents of the gods in the Scandinavian and Germanic myths, namely the Jotne. This title has been somewhat inaccurately translated as “Giants” and in modern folklore and retellings emphasis has been placed on their supposed monstrous size and nature (as with the Fomhóraigh). Yet in the original mythological stories the Jotne are often far from abnormal in physical form, let alone giants. Just like the Fomhóraigh they can appear as beautiful men and women, little different from the “gods” with whom they freely mate and produce offspring. Indeed at times it is difficult to discern where exactly the line should be drawn between “the gods” and “the giants” since such fluidly exists between them. Of course the very same thing could be said of the relationship between the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomhóraigh.
The suggestion that the literary form of the Fomhóraigh is simply a confused amalgamation of a lower class of gods and “anti-gods”, though not without merit, must be tested against the more plausible theory discussed above that what we have is an original – and actually quite intact – representation of a race of beings separate from “the gods” but yet closely related. This race can interact, interbreed and intermarry with the gods and though at times some may act in a hostile manner or take on a monstrous form they are little different from their divine opponents. This places them in much the same position as their Germano-Scandinavian equivalents, the Jotne.
The Definition Of Divinity
This takes us to the nature of the gods and the much-debated Irish concept of the afterlife. It is clear from the mythologies of the Gaelic nations (and related Celtic peoples) that the original gods of the Irish, Scots and Manx were regarded as divine (because they were a class of supernaturally-gifted beings), as immortal (because of their original and ever-living nature) and as progenitors (through the parentage of some mortal heroes or of certain peoples). Beyond that it is difficult to go. Modern or populist classifications of “sky-god”, “sun-god”, “nature-goddess”, etc. though clearly appealing to modern minds are simply wrong. To talk in these terms when describing Irish and Scottish mythological beings is to misunderstand the complex nature of the Celtic pantheon. Most Irish “gods” and “goddesses” don’t fit into the neat categories of modern classifiers because they were never intended to. The divine beings of Irish mythology were multi-layered, multi-faceted characters with more than one attribute, and even shared attributes. There was no one “war god” because several shared that role. Yes, certainly, some beings were clearly more associated with particular aspects of life or nature than others (Gaibhne with smithcraft, the Mórríon with warfare and death) but this did not imply exclusivity.
Interestingly, though immortal the gods could die (or rather be killed). While this may seem like a paradox to contemporary minds it was far more common in ancient theologies. Likewise the habit of divine or supernatural beings engaging in shapeshifting, moving from “human” to animal form, or undergoing serial reincarnations, was perfectly acceptable. It did not, as is sometimes claimed, imply a general belief in reincarnation. There was none. Those who underwent shapeshifting or rebirths were divine beings or heroes with supernatural attributes. The pre-Christian Irish and Scots, as the Celts in general, clearly believed in an afterlife of sorts where one would dwell with one’s ancestors in the company of the gods. The question was to whom this afterlife extended. The people as a whole or only a privileged few?
Related Terms Or Words
As well as the names Tuath(a) Dé or Aos Sí the terms Fir Dé “Men of God(s)” and Fir Sí “Men of the Otherworld” were also widely used and seemed freely interchangeable. It should also be noted that a number of group names associated in the later literature with the Tuatha Dé (or Tuatha Dé characters) also occur in some very early texts, specifically the Fir Trí nDéithe “Men of the Three Gods”, and the Trí Dé Dána “Three Gods of Skill” (later appearing, probably through accumulated confusion, as the Trí Dé Danann “Three Gods of *Dana”).
Two relatively old and popular words that have partially survived or influenced modern Irish terms should be mentioned here. Both mean “A dweller in a Sí; inhabitant of a Sí” and existed in the same literary context as the term Aos Sí.
The first is Sídhaighe, Síodhaighe. This has not survived into the modern Irish language as such but its influence (possibly via the word Sídheog?) can be seen in the contemporary words Sióg and Síogaí [see entries Sióg and Síogaí, below].
The second term remained in use right up to the Early Modern Irish period as Síodhaidhe. This then became Síodhaí (gs. Síodhaí, pl. Síodhaithe). This word, now rarely used, is erroneously equated with the contemporary Irish term Síogaí “Elf, fairy” [See entries Síogaí and Síodhaidhe, below]. However Síodhaí is a more acceptable word for use when describing the beings of traditional Irish literature since Síogaí is a term more appropriate to the elf-like creatures of European folklore or Children’s fiction and is not an exact equivalent.
Later Irish and Scottish folklore, which had deviated somewhat from the early literary milieu, uses several terms to describe the Otherworld People as well as traditional ones like the Tuatha Dé Danann and Aos Sí. Most of these continue a seemingly old practice amongst ordinary folk of not referring to the Otherworld community by their proper name or title but in a circumspect way (though whether this is a post-Christian development or not is impossible to say).
Na Daoine Uaisle “The Noble, Aristocratic People”
Na Daoine Maithe “The Good People”
English Translations And Anglicised Forms
In the English language, especially in recent times, a number of names have been used to describe the Tuatha Dé or Otherworld community of Irish, Scottish and Manx mythology. Common terms are: the “Fairies (or Faeries)”, the “Hidden People”, the “Otherworld People (or Folk)”, the “Ever-Living Ones”, the “Celtic Elves” and numerous others. Of these the “Otherworld People” is probably the most appropriate since it reflects the main aspects of the Irish and Scottish traditions (though colloquially “Fairies” will probably remain the most popular with all its unfortunate overtones). Other terms, especially those popularised in Neo-Celtic and Wiccan circles and some contemporary Fantasy fiction, are much more problematic with little or no veracity. Names like the “Sí”, “Shee”, “Shea”, “Dananns”, “Seelies“, etc. are very poor transliterations and should be avoided.
One of the sadder effects of the slow degradation of native Irish and Scottish culture and their replacement with an Anglo-American approximation, has been the loss of the genuine imagery associated with the Otherworld People (be they the Tuatha Dé or Aos Sí) in both countries. The use of the term “Fairies” as a translation in the dominant English language has resulted in 19th and 20th century European folklore images of fairies, elves, dwarfs, trolls and the like, supplanting much of the indigenous tradition. This has been exacerbated by the popular view of “fairies” created by Children’s books, television programmes and movies. In contrast to nations like Greece, Italy, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark very few Irish people are aware of their own mythological or literary traditions nor are they taught them in most Irish schools. Scotland has an even worse record.
Recently a major Irish language news site described the character of Legolas from J.R.R. Tolkien’s epic fantasy series The Lord of the Rings as a “Lucharachán”. This word actually means a “dwarf or pygmy”, though it is usually translated as “Leprechaun“. By no stretch of the imagination could it be used as an equivalent to Tolkien’s Elves which, in fact, borrow heavily from Irish Mythology and the lore of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The term that should have been used was Síogaí “elf, fairy” or its like, a far better approximation. The complete lack of familiarity for most Irish people with their own indigenous traditions means few if any would have been struck by the incongruous nature of the use of Lucharachán for the English word elf.
Related to this one may note the false distinction drawn in contemporary English between “Fairies” and “Elves” in popular accounts of Irish and Celtic mythology. This is especially true of those that feature on the internet and in some less studious publications. In terms of their origins what we now call Fairies and Elves in a northern Europe context represent the same class of supernatural beings absorbed under the new Christian cultures of the early Middle Ages, and are common to the “post-pagan” Celtic and Germanic peoples. Obviously they are the pre-Christian deities, both pan-cultural and local, of the Celts and Germans when thought of in a collective or communal sense. Claims that “Fairies are Celtic” while “Elves are Germanic” represent a gross distortion of the facts. Both terms are equally applicable, if really required, though of course the word Elf is truer to Germanic linguistic history than Fairy which comes to us from Latin via the French language.
It’s frequently been noted that much of the information for Early Irish, Scots and Manx Literature, Mythology and Folklore, whether online or in printed form, is of little value for a genuine understanding or elucidation of the pre-Christian beliefs of the Celtic peoples of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Many of the “Celtic” books that have been published down through the years, even the most popular ones (or perhaps especially the most popular ones), are of mixed value; sometimes, in the case of older academic publications, it is simply because the theories in them have gradually fallen out of favour, been replaced or disproved (yet publishers will continue to produce them, usually because they are no longer in copyright). More troublesome are the far greater number of books based upon populist, soft-focus stereotypes of the Celts. These works are usually informed by modern romanticism or ideas and concepts taken from the contemporary genres of Fantasy fiction, Anglo-Germanic folklore or children’s literature. Though undoubtedly profitable for author and publisher alike such books simply contribute to the spread of misinformation and confusion about the genuine nature of the various Celtic mythologies.
When it comes to information on the internet the situation is far worse, especially since what is available exists in such vast and readily accessible quantities (though much of it is repetitive). Most of it is out of date: antiquated theories or explanations taken from no longer copyrighted materials originally published in the 19th or early 20th centuries and posted or summarised on various websites, blogs or forums (often with a “Tolkienesque” veneer). In recent years the so-called “Celtic Reconstructionist” movements (Wiccans, Neo-Celts, Neo-Pagans, Druids, etc.) have become increasingly important in this area, though normally using a mix of the same dubious sources mentioned earlier as the basis for their “reconstructions”. Even Wikipedia, for all its vaunted new-found scholarly rigour, offers relatively poor fare.
However, a handful of sites, of academic or near academic quality, do exist online: and some of unexpected provenance. First and foremost are those offering original source materials.
The Corpus of Electronic Texts or CELT is perhaps the single most important resource for anyone wishing to know the ancient stories and histories of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Maintained by the University College Cork (and partly funded by the Irish state) the site contains hundreds of documents published online in both their original languages and with translations, and are available to people across the globe to view and study for free (and also to download!). Nothing else quiet like it exists on the internet and it is one of the academic treasure troves of the Celtic world. Though some of the older publications contained on the site have English translations dating to the late 1800s that would now be contested (in parts, at least), even the oldest works have a scholarly value that is second to none (and most have or will be updated). Furthermore many of the works on the site are no longer available or can only be purchased at great expense from specialist publishers.
The team behind CELT have also contributed to the creation of the extraordinary Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language or eDIL which is a searchable glossary of the Irish language for the period 700-1700 AD, and the Celtic Digital Initiative, which contains many interesting articles and studies. Perhaps of related interest is the enormously popular Bunachar Logainmneacha na hÉireann or Placenames Database of Ireland, containing a comprehensive list of placenames in Irish and English from across the island of Ireland, often with their origins, earliest appearances and translations. It is fully interactive, with mapping and data-search, making it a unique resource. For those wishing to see what the original stories of Irish myth looked like, in a quite literal sense, then Irish Script On Screen or ISOS is a must. It contains thousands of scanned images of medieval or later Irish manuscripts that anyone can view and is child’s play to navigate or search.
The private academic site *selgā (in German and English) is a catalogue of primary source materials for Celtic studies, providing links to many online resources (as well as printed ones) and is well worth visiting. Mary Jones is another well regarded Celtic site, though one aimed at a more general audience with a very wide range of out-of-copyright translations of Irish myths and sagas presented in scholarly form. Somewhat populist in places, and given to occasional bouts of Celtic romanticism, it nevertheless remains a good starting point for a tentative reader.
From a very different angle, but one focused much more on interpreting Irish (or more particularly Scottish) Mythology, is the website Tairis. It’s something of an unexpected delight since it represents one person’s personal interest in “Celtic Reconstructionism”, usually a sure sign of trouble. However here it has managed to achieve a remarkable degree of scholarly thought and contains some genuinely useful summaries of modern academic opinion. Fun, well written and intelligent, a careful reading makes it highly useful.
In a similar vein is the collaborative effort represented by Land, Sea and Sky. At first glance it may seem like another “neo-pagan” site but like Tairis there is more of the enquiring scholar here than the born-again-druid. It contains lots of useful information, much of it remarkably free of mystical nonsense, and is a very useful primer for Celtic Mythology in general, even if some of the conclusions in the articles go too far in their suggested interpretations based upon the evidence available.
All these sites contain very useful links to other generally quality web sites, as well as bibliographical guides. For more on Irish language resources please visit here.
Appendix I: Names Of The Otherworld
Leaving aside the general name of Sí, or the many names of particular Síthe mentioned as being located in Ireland (and Scotland, the Isle of Man and elsewhere), a large number of titles, poetical and descriptive, existed for the Otherworld. They referred to the Sí as a whole or particular regions or aspects of the Otherworld. The most important were:
Má Mheallach “Delightful, Pleasant Plain”
Má Mhoin “Plain of Feats, Tricks”
Tír Tairngaire “Promised Land” (this is a direct translation of the Hebrew/Biblical “Promised Land” however it has recently been suggested that the term may be an original pre-Christian description for the Otherworld)
Eamhain Abhlacha “Twins of the Apple Trees, Apple Orchard” (alt. “The Twin Apple Trees, Apple Orchards”?)
Tír na mBan “Land of the Women”
Má dhá Cheo “Plain of the Two Mists”
Tír na nIonaidh “Land of Wonder”
Tír faoi Thoinn “Land under the Wave”
Tír na mBeo “Land of the Living”
Insí Tuaisceartach “Northern Islands”
Teach Doinn “Tower of Donn” (Donn “Dark One”)
Má Fionnairgid “Plain of White-silver”
Má Airgeadnéil “Plain of the Silver-cloud”
Má Réin “Plain of the Sea”
Í Bhreasail “Island of Breasal”
Ciúin “Calm, Silent, Gentle (Land, Place)”
Iomchiúin “Very Calm, Silent, Gentle (Land, Place)”
Ildathach “Multicoloured (Land, Place)”
Inis Subha “Island of Gladness, Joy”
Airgtheach “Silver (Place, Land)” (alt. “Silver-house”)
Tír na nÓg “Land of the Young, Youth”
Má Teathrach “Plain of Teathra” (Teathra “sea, ocean”)
Appendix II: Names Of The Most Prominent Tuatha Dé And Aos Sí Figures
This list is a sample of the more commonly encountered figures from the indigenous Irish, Scottish and Manx literary traditions presented in Modern Irish with alternative spellings, versions and sobriquets (please note that this list is not authoritative since there are no agreed modern spelling for several of the names featured).
Abhean son of Beag-Fheilmhas
Áine daughter of Manannán / daughter of Eoghbhal, wife of Eachdha
Aodh Álainn son of Bodhbh Dearg son of Eochaidh Garbh / the Daghdha
Aodh Caomh [gs. Aodha]
Aoibheall [gs. Aoibheaill]
Aoí son of Ollamhan
Aonghas the Mac Óg son of the Daghdha and Bóinn (Aonghas an Bhrú, Mac an Óg, Mac Óg, Macán Óg) [gs. Aonghais]
Ana [gs. Anann]
Banbha, Éire, Fódhla
Bé Chuille daughter of Fliodhais (aka. Bé Théide)
Bé Chuama daughter of Eogan, wife of Eoghan Inbhir
Bébhionn daughter of Ealcmhar, wife of Aodh Álainn
Bóinn wife of Neachtan [gs. Bóinne]
Bodhbh Dearg son of Eochaidh Garbh / the Daghdha
Breas son of Ealadha and Éire, husband of Bríd (aka. Eochaidh Breas)
Brian [gs. Briain]
Bríd daughter of the Daghdha [gs. Bríde]
Cairbre son of Oghma and Éadaoin
Caor Ibhormeidh daughter of Eadhal Anabhail, wife of Anoghas the Mac Óg
Cearmadh Mílbhéal son of the Daghdha
Cian son of Dian Céacht (aka. Scál Balbh) [gs. Céin]
Creidhne son of Easargh son of Néd
Daghdha (An Daghdha) (aka. Eocahidh Ollathair son of Ealadha son of Dealbhaodh)
Dana daughter of Dealbhaodh [gs. Danann]
Dian Ceacht son of Easargh son of Néd
Dealbhaodh son of Oghma son of Ealadha (aka. Tuireall) [gs. Dealbhaoidh]
Éadaoin wife of Miodhir [gs. Éadaoine]
Eadarlámh [gs. Eadarláimh]
Ealcmhar [gs. Ealcmhair]
Earnmhas father of the Mórríon, Badhbh, Macha [gs. Earnmhais]
Éire, Banbha, Fódhla daughters of Earnmhas
Eithne / Eithle daughter of Balar, wife of Cian, mother of Lúgh [gs. Eithneann / Eithleann]
Fann daughter of Aodh Abhrath, sister of Lí Ban, wife of Manannán [gs. Fainn]
Fiacha mac Dealbhaoidh
Gaibhne son of Easargh son of Néd (aka. Gaibhleann, Gaibhne Gabha, Góban Saor son of Tuirbhe) [gs. Gaibhneann]
Lí Ban daughter of Aodh Abhrath, sister of Fann
Lear [gs. Lir]
Lucahta son of Easargh son of Néd
Lúgh Lámhfhada son of Cian and Eithne/Eithle daughter of Balar (aka. Lúgh Samhildánach, Lúgh Ildánach, An Scál) alt. spelling Lú [gs. Lúgha / alt. spelling gs. Lú]
Mac Cuill (aka. Eathar/Seathar), Mac Ceacht (aka. Teathar), Mac Gréine (aka. Ceathar) sons of Cearmadh Mílbhéal son of the Daghdha, husbands of Banbha, Fódhla and Éire
Macha, sister of Mórríon and Badhbh, daughter of Earnmhas
Manannán son of Lear, father of Áine, father of Mongán mac Fiachna, husband of Fann (aka. Oirbse)
Miodhir son of the Daghdha, or son of Inneach son of Eachtach son of Eadarlámh, foster-father of Aonghas the Mac Óg, husband of Éadaoin and Fuamhnach
Mórríon wife of the Daghdha (An Mórríon) (aka. Badhbh, Neamhain, Macha) [gs. Mórríona]
Neachtan (aka. Nuadha) [gs. Neachtain]
Néd son of Inneach [gs.Néid]
Niamh daughter of Manannán
Nuadha Airgeadlámh son of Eachtach, son of Eadarlámh son of Ordán (aka. Nuadha Neacht, Neachtan, Ealcmhar) [gs. Nuadhad]
Oghma Grianaineach son of Ealadha and Eithle/Eithne, brother of the Daghdha, husband of Éadaoin daughter of Dian Ceacht, father of Tuire, father of Cairbre (aka. Oghma Grianéigeas, Tréanfhear)
Ruán son of Breas and Bríd [gs. Ruáin]
Sadhbh daughter of Bodhbh Dearg [gs. Saidhbh]
Tadhg [gs. Taidhg]
Tuirne / Tuire [gs. Tuireann / Tuireall]
Appendix III: Modern Irish Words And Terms Derived From Sí
The Otherworld-related words and terms below are taken from Niall Ó Dónaill’s 1977 Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, the standard, modern Irish-English dictionary. It should be noted, however, that there remains considerable debate about some of the English translations proffered, particularly for more traditional words or terms specific to Ireland’s culture.
Sí (gs. Sí, pl. Síthe) “Fairy mound” [alt. spl. Sídh, pl. Sídhe] [rel. Aos Sí “Inhabitants of fairy mounds; fairies”, Bean Sí “Fairy woman; banshee”] Note: “Fairy” is a particularly bad translation here, influenced by the English language, and the correct equivalent should be “Otherworld; Otherworld residence, territory”
The following words, though derived from the Irish Sí, are more applicable to the type of elfin or fairy-like beings that are encountered in modern Fantasy fiction, Children’s stories or non-Irish folklore. Their use in the context of the Irish “Otherworld People” is problematic.
Sián (gs. Sián, npl. Siáin, gpl. Siáin) “fairy mound”
Sióg (gs. Sióige, npl. Síoga, gpl. Sióg) “Fairy” [alt. spl. Sídheog]
Síogaí (gs. Síogaí, pl. Síogaithe) “Elf, fairy” [alt. spl. Síodhaí]
Síbhean (gs. & npl. Símhná, gpl. Síbhan) “Fairy (woman)”
Síofróg (gs. Síofróige, npl. Síofróga, gpl. Síofróg) “Elf-woman, fairy; enchantress” [alt. spl. Siabhróg]
Síofra (gs. Síofra, pl. Síofraí) “Elf, sprite; elf-child, changeling” [alt. spl. Siafra, Siafrach, Síodhbhra, Siabhra, Siabhair]
Appendix IV: Early Modern Irish Words And Terms Derived From Sí
These words are taken from Foclóir Uí Dhuinnín, the historic 1927 Irish-English dictionary, which uses the older unreformed spelling.
Síodh (gs. Síodha, Sídhe, d. Síd, pl. Sídhe, Síodha) “A tumulus or knoll, a fairy hill, an abode of fairies, arising from cairn or tumulus burial”
Doras an tSíodha “The tumulus entrance”
Lucht an tSíodha “The people of the fairy-mound”
Fear an tSíodha “The owner of the fairy-mound”
Aos Sídhe “Fairy-folk”
An Sluagh Sídhe “The fairy-host”
Bean Sídhe “A woman of the fairies”
Fear Sídhe “A man of the fairies”
Fir Sídhe (Fir Síthe) “Men of the fairies; phantoms”
Duine Sídhe “A fairy person”
Eachradh Sídhe “Fairy steeds”
Eoin tSídhe “Fairy birds”
Ceol Sídhe “A fairy music luring the unwary to their doom”
Liaigh Sídhe “A fairy doctor”
Leannán Sídhe “A fairy lover”
Ara Sídhe “A fairy-friend”
Ceo Sídhe “A fairy mist”
Solas Sídhe na bPortaighthe “The bog fairy-light, Will o’ the wisp”
Uaisle Sídhe “Fairy nobles”
Maithe Sídhe “Good fairies”
Síodhaidhe (gs. Síodhaidhe pl. Síodhaidhthe) “the occupier of a fairy-mound, a fairy chief; a fairy, goblin”
Síodhbróg (pl. Síodhbróige) “A fairy”
Sídheog (pl. Sídheoige) “A fay or fairy”
Fothsagán (pl. Fothsagáin) “A fairy, well-disposed towards mortals”
Siabhra (gs. Siabhra, pl. Siabhraí, Siabhraidhe, Siabhraighthe) “A phantom or spectre, fairy or goblin”
Siabhradh “A phantom, a spectre, a goblin; a spectre-like mortal”
Síodhbhradh (gs. Síodhbhraidh, Síodhbhartha, pl. Síodhbhradh, Síodhbhraidhe) “A fairy child or changeling”
Appendix V: The Celtic And Germano-Scandinavian Pantheons
A loose scheme can be devised showing the equivalences between the pantheons or Otherworld communities of the Celtic and Germanic peoples (represented by Irish and Norwegian terms).
Tuatha Dé Danann (“The Gods”) = Æser, Vaner, Alver (“The Gods”)
Tuatha Dé Danann (“Higher Gods”) = Æser (“Higher Gods”)
Aos Sí (“Lower Gods, Fairies, Otherworld People”) = Vaner, Alver (“Lower Gods, Elves, Light Elves”)
Fomhóraigh (“Anti-Gods, Under-Demons, Giants”) = Jotne (“Anti-Gods, Giants”)
Lucharacháin / Leipreacháin? = Dverger (“Dwarves, Dark Elves, Black Elves”)
Na Bánánaigh? = Valkyrje (“Valkyrie”)
? = Troll (note that the original trolls of Germanic and Scandinavian myth are very different from their folkloric descendants. While often monstrous in form they are exclusively female, closely associated with violent death, and are sexually promiscuous with both humans and giants. But not, significantly, the gods)
© Séamas Ó Sionnaigh (An Sionnach Fionn)
- Tuatha Dé Danann by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Fomhóraigh by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Lucharacháin by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- An Sí by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Fathaigh by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Bocánaigh, Na Bánánaigh by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Púcaí by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Péisteanna by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Murúcha by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Seanchas Agus Litríocht na nGael by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- Na Fianna by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
- An Gal Gréine by Séamas Ó Sionnaigh
Online Sources For The Above Articles:
- Warriors, Words, and Wood: Oral and Literary Wisdom in the Exploits of Irish Mythological Warriors by Phillip A. Bernhardt-House
- Irish Perceptions of the Cosmos by Liam Mac Mathúna
- Water Imagery in Early Irish by Kay Muhr
- The Bluest-Greyest-Greenest Eye: Colours of Martyrdom and Colours of Winds as Iconographic Landscape by Alfred K. Siewers
- Fate in Early Irish Texts by Jacqueline Borsje
- Druids, Deer and “Words of Power”: Coming to Terms with Evil in Medieval Ireland by Jacqueline Borsje
- Geis, Prophecy, Omen and Oath by T. M. Charles-Edwards
- Geis, a literary motif in early Irish literature by Qiu Fangzhe
- Honour-bound: The Social Context of Early Irish Heroic Geis by Philip O’Leary
- Space and Time in Irish Folk Rituals and Tradition by Lijing Peng and Qiu Fangzhe
- The Use of Prophecy in the Irish Tales of the Heroic Cycle by Caroline Francis Richardson
- Early Irish Taboos as Traditional Communication: A Cognitive Approach by Tom Sjöblom
- Monotheistic to a Certain Extent: The ‘Good Neighbours’ of God in Ireland by Jacqueline Borsje
- The ‘Terror of the Night’ and the Morrígain: Shifting Faces of the Supernatural by Jacqueline Borsje
- Brigid: Goddess, Saint, ‘Holy Woman’, and Bone of Contention by C.M. Cusack
- War-goddesses, furies and scald crows: The use of the word badb in early Irish literature by Kim Heijda
- The Enchanted Islands: A Comparison of Mythological Traditions from Ireland and Iceland by Katarzyna Herd
- The Early Irish Fairies and Fairyland by Norreys Jephson O’ Conor
- The Washer at the Ford by Gertrude Schoepperle
- Milk Symbolism in the ‘Bethu Brigte’ by Thomas Torma
- Conn Cétchathach and the Image of Ideal Kingship in Early Medieval Ireland by Grigory Bondarenko
- King in Exile in Airne Fíngein (Fíngen’s Vigil): Power and Pursuit in Early Irish Literature by Grigory Bondarenko
- Sacral Elements of Irish Kingship by Daniel Bray
- Kingship in Early Ireland by Charles Doherty
- The King as Judge in Early Ireland by Marilyn Gerriets
- The Saintly Madman: A Study of the Scholarly Reception History of Buile Suibhne by Alexandra Bergholm
- Fled Bricrenn and Tales of Terror by Jacqueline Borsje
- Supernatural Threats to Kings: Exploration of a Motif in the Ulster Cycle and in Other Medieval Irish Tales by Jacqueline Borsje
- Human Sacrifice in Medieval Irish Literature by Jacqueline Borsje
- Demonising the Enemy: A study of Congall Cáech by Jacqueline Borsje
- The Evil Eye’ in early Irish literature by Jacqueline Borsje and Fergus Kelly
- The Irish National Origin-Legend: Synthetic Pseudohistory by John Carey
- “Transmutations of Immortality in ‘The Lament of the Old Woman of Beare’” by John Carney
- Approaches to Religion and Mythology in Celtic Studies by Clodagh Downey
- ‘A Fenian Pastime’?: early Irish board games and their identification with chess by Timothy Harding
- Orality in Medieval Irish Narrative: An Overview by Joseph Falaky Nagy
- Oral Life and Literary Death in Medieval Irish Tradition by Joseph Falaky Nagy
- Satirical Narrative in Early Irish Literature by Ailís Ní Mhaoldomhnaigh
- Lia Fáil: Fact and Fiction in the Tradition by Tomás Ó Broin
- Irish Myths and Legends by Tomás Ó Cathasaigh
- ‘Nation’ Consciousness in Early Medieval Ireland by Miho Tanaka
- Bás inEirinn: Cultural Constructions of Death in Ireland by Lawrence Taylor
- Ritual and myths between Ireland and Galicia. The Irish Milesian myth in the Leabhar Gabhála Éireann: Over the Ninth Wave. Origins, contacts and literary evidence by Monica Vazquez
- Continuity, Cult and Contest by John Waddell
- Cú Roí and Svyatogor: A Study in Chthonic by Grigory Bondarenko
- Autochthons and Otherworlds in Celtic and Slavic by Grigory Bondarenko
- The ‘Terror of the Night’ and the Morrígain: Shifting Faces of the Supernatural by Jacqueline Borsje
- ‘The Otherworld in Irish Tradition,’ by John Carey
- The Location of the Otherworld in Irish Tradition by John Carey
- Prophecy, Storytelling and the Otherworld in Togail Bruidne Da Derga by Ralph O’ Connor
- The Evil Eye’ in early Irish literature by Jacqueline Borsje and Fergus Kelly
- Rules and Legislation on Love Charms in Early Medieval Ireland by Jacqueline Borsje
- Marriage in Early Ireland by Donnchadh Ó Corráin
- The Human Head in Insular Pagan Celtic Religion by Anne Ross
- Gods in the Hood by Angelique Gulermovich Epstein
- The Names of the Dagda by Scott A Martin
- The Morrigan and Her Germano-Celtic Counterparts by Angelique Gulermovich Epstein
- The Meanings of Elf, and Elves, in Medieval England by Alaric Timothy Peter Hall
- Elves (Ashgate Encyclopaedia) by Alaric Timothy Peter Hall
- The Evolution of the Otherworld: Redefining the Celtic Gods for a Christian Society by Courtney L. Firman
- Warriors and Warfare – Ideal and Reality in Early Insular Texts by Brian Wallace
- Images of Warfare in Bardic Poetry by Katharine Simms
- Rí Éirenn, Rí Alban, Kingship and Identity in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries by Máire Herbert
- Aspects of Echtra Nerai by Mícheál Ó Flaithearta
- The Ancestry of Fénius Farsaid by John Carey
- CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) – published texts
- Mary Jones (Celtic Literature Collective) – translations
Printed Sources For The Above Articles:
- The Gaelic Finn Tradition by Sharon J. Arbuthnot and Geraldine Parsons
- An Introduction to Early Irish Literature by Muireann Ní Bhrolcháin
- Lebar Gabala: Recension I by John Carey
- The Irish National Origin-Legend: Synthetic Pseudohistory by John Carey
- Studies in Irish Literature and History by James Carney
- Ancient Irish Tales by Tom P. Cross and Clark Harris Slover
- Early Irish Literature by Myles Dillon
- Irish Sagas by Myles Dillon
- Cycle of the Kings by Myles Dillon
- Early Irish Myths and Sagas by Jeffrey Gantz
- The Celtic Heroic Age by John T Koch and John Carey (Editors)
- Landscapes of Cult and Kingship by Roseanne Schot, Conor Newman and Edel Bhreathnach (Editors)
- The Banshee: The Irish Death Messenger by Patricia Lysaght
- The Learned Tales of Medieval Ireland by Proinsias Mac Cana
- The Festival of Lughnasa: A Study of the Survival of the Celtic Festival of the Beginning of Harvest by Máire MacNeill
- Pagan Past and Christian Present in Early Irish Literature by Kim McCone
- The Wisdom of the Outlaw by Joseph Falaky Nagy
- Conversing With Angels and Ancients by Joseph Falaky Nagy
- From Kings to Warlords by Katharine Simms
- Gods and Heroes of the Celts by Marie-Louise Sjoestedt (trans Myles Dillon)
- The Year in Ireland by Kevin Danaher
- In Ireland Long Ago by Kevin Danaher
- Irish Customs and Beliefs by Kevin Danaher
- Cattle in Ancient Ireland by A. T. Lucas
- The Sacred Trees of Ireland by A. T. Lucas
- The Lore of Ireland: An Encyclopaedia of Myth, Legend and Romance by Dáithí Ó hÓgáin
- Irish Superstitions by Dáithí Ó hÓgáin
- Irish Folk Custom and Belief by Seán Ó Súillebháin
- Armagh and the Royal Centres in Early Medieval Ireland: Monuments, Cosmology and the Past by NB Aitchison
- Land of Women: Tales of Sex and Gender from Early Ireland by Lisa Bitel
- Irish Kings and High-Kings by John Francis Byrne
- Early Irish Kingship and Succession by Bart Jaski
- A Guide to Early Irish Law by Fergus Kelly
- Early Irish Farming by Fergus Kelly
- A Guide to Ogam by Damian McManus
- Ireland before the Normans by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín
- Early Medieval Ireland: 400-1200 by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín
- A New History of Ireland Volume I: Prehistoric and Early Ireland by Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (Editor)
- Early Ireland by Michael J O’ Kelly
- Cattle Lords & Clansmen by Nerys Patterson
- Sex and Marriage in Ancient Ireland by Patrick C Power
- Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe by H R Ellis Davidson
- The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe by Hilda Ellis Davidson
- Lady with a Mead Cup by Michael J Enright
- Celtic Mythology by Proinsias Mac Cana